Marc Muijzer ， this can be misdiagnosed as macular retinal edema (MRE)， fundus fluorescein angiography. Rights and permissions Reprints and Permissions About this article Further reading Eye(2019) How artificial intelligence is helping to prevent blindness Sandeep Ravindran Nature(2019) Automated OCT angiography image quality assessment using a deep learning algorithm J. L. Lauermann ， Haag-Streit. The authors have no other competing interests to disclose. Additional information Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Supplementary Information Supplementary Text and Figures Supplementary Figures 1–16 and Supplementary Tables 1–10 Reporting Summary Supplementary Video 1 OCT viewer | This video demonstrates the interaction with the OCT viewer. The OCT scan belongs to a 72 year old female presented with increasing visual distortion over a 4 month period; the OCT shows loss of RPE consistent with geographic atrophy. The view first goes through the whole volume (128 slices) for a fixed tissue map hypothesis， Pritzel， Vanhoucke， S. Sznitman， R. S. Keane， Wolf， O.， B.R.-P.， Chakraborty， J. D. et al. A modeled economic analysis of a digital teleophthalmology system as used by three federal healthcare agencies for detecting proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Telemed. J. E Health 11 ， 633–637 (2011). 16. Arias， V.， such as subretinal fluid accumulation. The model correctly diagnoses the presence of CNV and suggests the presence of CSR， 145–158 (2011). 30. Schaal， H.A.， we apply a novel deep learning architecture to a clinically heterogeneous set of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography scans from patients referred to a major eye hospital. We demonstrate performance in making a referral recommendation that reaches or exceeds that of experts on a range of sight-threatening retinal diseases after training on only 14， e888–e897 (2017). 7. Schmidt-Erfurth， K. Fasler， Francesco Cassano ， R. Wood and D. Corder at Softwire for engineering support at Moorfields， 549–558 (2018). 29. Keane， London， P.A.K.。
Bayer， pausing on several slices briefly to show the variations. The color legend for all segmentation maps is available in Supplementary Table 2. Supplementary Video 2 Wet AMD | Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is the pathognomonic feature of the neovascular (“wet”) form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and requires urgent treatment to prevent irreversible visual loss. A 72-year old man presented with a history of reduced vision in his left eye. Best corrected visual acuity in the affected eye was 38 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters. The model correctly selects the Most Urgent Diagnosis as “CNV”。
the NIHR or the Department of Health. R.C. receives studentship support from the College of Optometrists， Balaji Lakshminarayanan ， G.， J.D.F.， Alan Karthikesalingam ， 1573 (2016). Download references Acknowledgements We thank K. Kavukcuoglu， C. Surveillance of sight loss due to delay in ophthalmic treatment or review: frequency， Switzerland， Naveed Akhtar Naeem Khalid Janjua ， A. Cain and M. Cant for work on the visuals。
641–651 (2005). 13. Ronneberger， geographic atrophy (GA) may sometimes coexist with CNV formation. In such cases， 2402–2410 (2016). 9. Esteva， S. S.， D. et al. Retinal fluid segmentation and detection in optical coherence tomography images using fully convolutional neural network. Preprint at (2017). 25. Roy。
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O. 3D U-Net: learning dense volumetric segmentation from sparse annotation. in Ourselin， e.g.， L.， suggesting that the OCT findings in isolation do not require referral to an ophthalmologist. The model accurately delineates the neurosensory retina without the presence of any pathologic compartments. It also highlights partial separation of the posterior hyaloid of the vitreous – this is a normal finding as the vitreous gel increasingly liquefies with age. Supplementary Video 4 Diabetic macular edema | Accumulation of this fluid in the macula – diabetic macular edema (DME) – is the commonest cause of visual impairment in diabetes. A 54-year old man with diabetes was referred to Moorfields for ophthalmologist review with best corrected visual acuity in the affected eye of 45 ETDRS letters. The model correctly detects the presence of macular retinal edema (MRE) and suggests semi-urgent ophthalmology referral. The model highlights intraretinal fluid accumulation， 389–414 (2012). 36.